The Indus Valley is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back at least 5,000 years. Aryan tribes invaded about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru led to independence in 1947.
Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Pakistan 2,912 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km
Long form: Republic of India | Short form: India
Local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya | Local short form: India/Bharat
Government type: Federal Republic
Capital: New Delhi
Independence: August 15, 1947 from UK
Republic Day - January 26 - date the Constitution of India came into force, January 26, 1950
Independence Day - August 15 - commemorating India's independence from British rule August 15, 1947
Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday - October 2 - Gandhi Jayanti celebrates Mahatma Gandhi, the "Father of the Nation"